Lehrstuhl für Tierökologie und Tropenbiologie

Dr. phil. nat. Brigitte Fiala

Akademische Direktorin

(Senior lecturer)

Telephone: +49 (0)931 31-84366

Fax direct:  +49 (0)931 31-843660
e-Mail:  fiala@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de



Room C018

University of Würzburg
Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology
Biocenter -  Am Hubland

97074 Würzburg, Germany

Tropical biology, evolutionary ecology, plant-animal interactions, ant-plant symbioses,  taxonomy, phylogeny and ecology of the SE Asian pioneer tree Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) 

Fieldwork in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Thailand and Africa (Ivory Coast)

  • since 2013 Senior lecturer (Academic Director) at University of Würzburg,
    1995-2002 Akademische Rätin, 2002-2013 Akademische Oberrätin,

  • 2005-2015 Stellvertretende Frauenbeauftragte (one of three of the Women's respresentatives) Faculty of Biology

  • 1994-1999 (Honorary) Scientific secretary of the Programme on Tropical Forest Canopy Research of the European Science Foundation. Co-editor of the book: Tropical Forest Canopies: Ecology and Management, Linsenmair KE, Davis AJ, Fiala B, Speight M (eds) (2001) Kluwer, Netherlands

  • 1991-2001 Research and coordination in the framework of the special main emphasis programme (Schwerpunktprogramm of the DFG) : "Mechanisms of the maintenance of tropical diversity".

  • 1988-1995 Scientific assistant (Wissenschaftlicher Assistent) at University of Würzburg

  • 1988 Ph.D in Zoology at University of Frankfurt

  • 1981 Diploma in Botany, 1981-1984 Scientific assistant University of Frankfurt and family related time out (care of my father)

  • 1975-1981 Studies in biology, chemistry and geography at University of Frankfurt

Editorial board member

Assocate editor Biological Journal Linnean Society

Until 2017 Editorial board Journal of Tropical Ecology

Reviewer activities

e.g, American Journal of Botany, Annals of Botany, Australian Journal of Botany, Basic and Applied Ecology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Biological Conservation, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Biotropica, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Current Biology, Ecological Entomology, Ecotropica, Functional Ecology, Insectes Sociaux, Journal of Biogeography, Journal of Ecology, Journal of Natural History,  Journal of Tropical Ecology, Naturwissenschaften, Myrmecological News, New Phytologist, Oecologia, Oikos


 Fiala B, bin Hashim R, Dumpert K, Maschwitz U (2017) Nuptial flight of the Southeast Asian plant-ant Crematogaster captiosa (Forel, 1911) and the phenology of colony founding. Asian Myrmecology 9, e009013, Doi: 10.20362/am.009013


Feldhaar H, Maschwitz B, Fiala B (2016) Taxonomic revision of the obligate plant-ants of the genus Crematogaster (Lund) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae), associated with Macaranga (Thouars) (Euphorbiaceae) on Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Sociobiology 63 (1), 651-681.

Fiala B, Slik F,  Weising K, Maschwitz U, Maryati Mohamed, Jamsari, Guicking D. (2016) Phylogeography of three closely related myrmecophytic pioneer tree species in SE Asia: implications for taxonomy. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 16, 39-52. DOI 10.1007/s13127-015-0254-2

Maschwitz U, Fiala B, Dumpert K,  bin Hashim Rosli, Sudhaus W (2016) Nematode associates and bacteria in ant-tree symbioses. Symbiosis 69, 1-7. DOI 10.1007/s13199-015-0367-6

Muehleisen A, Queenborough S, Alvia P, Valencia R,  Fiala B (2016) Incidence of extra-floral nectaries and their relationship to growth and survival of lowland tropical rain forest trees. Biotropica 48(3), 321-331. doi: 10.1111/btp.12310

Uhl B, Wölfling M, Fiala B, Fiedler K (2016) Micro-moth communities mirror environmental stress gradients within a Mediterranean nature reserve, Basic and Applied Ecology 17, 273-281. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2015.10.002


Fiala B, Wells K, Haubenreisser J, Pittroff A, Kaya-Zeeb S, Chung AYC, Rosli bin Hashim, Keller A (2015) Monophyletic clades of Macaranga pollinating thrips show high specificity to host plant taxonomic sections. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 116,  558-570. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12605

Schwitzke C, Fiala B, Linsenmair KE, Curio E (2015) Eucharistid ant-parasitoid affects facultative ant-plant Leea manillensis: top-down effects through three trophic levels. Arthropod-plant Interactions 9, 497-505.  DOI: 10.1007/s11829-015-9391-y


Wielgoss A, Tscharntke T, Rumede A, Fiala B, Seidel H, Shahabuddin, Clough Y (2014) Interaction complexity matters: Disentangling services and disservices of ant communities driving yield in tropical agroecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20132144.http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2144 

Fiala B, Meyer U, Rosli b HAshim, Maschwitz U (2014) Temporary sterilization behavior of mutualistic partner ants in a Southeast Asian myrmecophyte. Ecological Research 29, 815-822


Guicking D,  Fiala B, Kröger-Kilian T, M Maryati,  Weising K (2013) High gene flow in two thrips-pollinated Southeast Asian pioneer trees: genetic diversity and population structure of Macaranga hypoleuca and Macaranga beccariana (Euphorbiaceae). Botanical Journal Linnean Society 173, 606–621.doi: 10.1111/boj.12100.

Guicking D, Fiala B, Weising K (2013)  Molekulare Studien an Ameisenbäumen. Biologie in unserer Zeit 43, 370-377. DOI: 10.1002/biuz.201310522

public outreach:

Maschwitz U, Zizka G, Merbach M, Fiala B (2013) Termitenfänger, Rattenjäger, Kotsammler und Kompostierer - Zur Vielfalt und evolutionären Entstehung der Kannenpflanzen. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 66(9),445-453.

 Maschwitz U, Zizka G, Fiala B, Merbach M (2013) Warum eine Baumameise das Tauchen lernte: Eine außergewöhnliche Partnerschaft zwischen Tier und Fleisch fressender Pflanze. SENCKENBERG – 354. Forschung natur • forschung • museum 143 (11/12) 2013.354-365. Schoeder-Hohenwarth Award 2015 for the best publication in natur • forschung • museum  


Wielgoss A, Clough Y, Fiala B, Rumede A; Tscharntke T (2012) A minor pest reduces yield losses by a major pest: plant-mediated herbivore interactions in Indonesian cacao. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 465-473.

Fiala B, Meyer U, Rosli H, Maschwitz U (2011). Pollination systems in pioneer trees of the genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in Malaysian rainforests. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103, 935-953. 

Guicking D, Fiala B, Blattner F, Slik F, M Maryati, Weising K (2011) Comparative chloroplast DNA phylogeography of myrmecophytic and non-myrmecophytic pioneer trees of Macaranga section Pruinosae (Euphorbiaceae). Tree Genetics and Genomes 7, 573-583. 

Clough Y., Abrahamczyk S., Adams M-O., Anshary A., Ariyanti N., Betz L., Buchori D., Cicuzza D., Darras K., Dwi Putra D, Fiala B, Gradstein S.R., Kessler M., Klein A-M., Pitopang R., Sahari B., Scherber C., Schulze CH., Shahabuddin, Sporn S., Stenchly K., Tjitrosoedirdjo S.S., Wanger T.C., Weist M., Wielgoss A., Tscharntke T. (2010) Biodiversity patterns and trophic interactions in human-dominated tropical landscapes in Sulawesi (Indonesia): plants, arthropods and vertebrates. In Tscharntke T. et al. (Eds.) Tropical rainforests and agroforests under global change. Environmental Series, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 15-71.

Türke M., Fiala B., Linsenmair K.E., Feldhaar H. (2010) Estimation of dispersal distances of the obligately plant-associated ant Crematogaster decamera. Ecological Entomology 35, 662-671

Feldhaar H, Gadau J, Fiala B (2010) Speciation in obligately plant-associated /Crematogaster /ants: Host-distribution rather than adaption towards specific hosts drives the process. Pp. 193-213 in: /Evolution in Action – Adaptive Radiations and the Origins of Biodiversity /(ed. Glaubrecht M, Schneider H). Springer, Berlin.

Weising K., Guicking D., Fey-Wagner C.,  Kröger-Kilian T., Wöhrmann T., Dorstewitz W., Bänfer G., Moog U, Vogel M. Baier C, Blattner FR., Feldhaar H, Fiala B. (2010). Mechanisms of speciation in Southeast Asian ant-plants of the genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). In:  Evolution in Action – Adaptive Radiations and the Origins of Biodiversity (ed. Glaubrecht M, Schneider H). Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-191

Wielgoss A, Tscharntke T, Damayanti Buchori, Fiala B, Clough Y (2010) Drivers of ant diversity losses in Indonesian cacao agroforestry: shade reduction, enhanced temperature and the dominance of an invasive dolichoderine ant species. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 135, 253-259.

Malsch A, Fiala B, Maschwitz U, Maryati Mohamed, Nais J, Linsenmair, KE (2008)*An analysis of declining ant species richness with increasing elevation at Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo. Asian Myrmecology 2, 33-49

Merbach M,  Zizka G, Fiala B, Merbach D, Booth WE  Maschwitz  U(2007) Why a carnivorous plant cooperates with an ant:- selective defense against pitcher-destroying weevils in the myrmecophytic pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook F. Ecotropica , in press.

Blüthgen N, Menzel F, Hovestadt T, Fiala B, Blüthgen N (2007) Specialization, constraints, and conflicting interests in mutualistic networks. Current Biology17, 341–346

papers 2006 and earlier see in chronological order:

Maschwitz U., Fiala B. & WR Dolling. 1987. New trophobiotic symbioses of ants with South East Asian bugs. Journal of Natural History 21: 1097-1107.

Fiala B., Maschwitz U, Tho YP. & AJ Helbig. 1989. Studies of a South East Asian ant-plant association: protection of Macaranga trees by Crematogaster borneensis. Oecologia 79: 463-470.

Maschwitz, U., Fiala, B., Lee, Y.F., Chey, Y.K. & F. L. Tan. 1989. New and little known myrmecophytic associations from Bornean rainforests. Malayan Nature Journal 43: 106-115.

Fiala, B. 1990. Extrafloral nectaries versus ant-Homoptera mutualisms: a comment on Becerra and Venable. Oikos 59: 281-282.

Fiala, B. 1990. Verschiedene Stufen der Pflanzen-Ameisen-Beziehungen am Beispiel der Gattung Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). Der Palmengarten, Sonderheft 15: Pflanzen und Ameisen.

Fiala, B. 1990. Bäume und Ameisen. Partnerschaften im südostasiatischen Regenwald. Biologie heute 381: 13-14. In: Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 43.J Heft 11.

Fiala, B. & U. Maschwitz. 1990. Studies on the South East Asian ant-plant association Crematogaster borneensis/Macaranga: Adaptations of the ant partner. Insectes Sociaux 37(3): 212-231.

Fiala, B. & M. Mebert. 1990. Partnerschaft für's Überleben. Ameisenbäume im tropischen Regenwald. Urania 12: 44-49.

Weising, K., Fiala, B., Ramloch, K., Kahl, G., Epplen, J.T. 1990. Oligonucleotide fingerprinting in angiosperms. Fingerprint News 2(2): 5-7.

Fiala, B. 1991. Partnerschaften von Pflanzen und Ameisen: Ameisenbäume im malaysischen Regenwald. Biologie in unserer Zeit 5: 241-247.

Fiala, B. & U. Maschwitz. 1991. Extrafloral nectaries in the genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in Malaysia: comparative studies of their possible significance as predispositions for myrmecophytism. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 44: 287-305.

Fiala, B., Maschwitz, U. & Y.P. Tho. 1991. The association between Macaranga and ants in South East Asia. In: CR Huxley & DF Cutler (eds), Interactions between ants and plants, pp. 263-270. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Chuah C.H., Ooi KE, Fiala,B., & S.H. Goh. 1992. Natural products from the genus Macaranga. P. 346-349 in Medicinal Products from Tropical Rain Forests (eds Khozirah Shaari, Azizol Abd. Kadir & Abd. Razak Mohd. Ali), Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Maschwitz U, Fiala B, Moog J & LG Saw. 1991. Two new myrmecophytic associations from the Malay Peninsula: ants of the genus Cladomyrma as partners of Saraca thaipingensis and Crypteronia griffithii. 1. Colony foundation and acquisition of trophobionts. Insectes Sociaux 38(1): 27-35.

Fiala B & U Maschwitz. 1992. Domatia as most important preadaptations in the evolution of myrmecophytes in a paleotropical tree genus. Plant Systematics and Evolution 180: 53-64.

Fiala B. & U Maschwitz. 1992. Food bodies in the genus Macaranga and their significance for the evolution of myrmecophytism. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 61-75.

Maschwitz U, B Fiala & KE Linsenmair. 1992. A new ant-tree from SE Asia: Zanthoxylum myriacanthum (Rutaceae), the Thorny Ivy-Rue. Malayan Nature Journal 46: 101-109.

Ooi KE, Chuah CH, Yong HS, Jantan I & B Fiala. 1992. 4-(p-Hydroxy-phenyl)-butan-2-one as the fruit fly attractant from Dendrobium anosanum and Murraya paniculata. P. 79-80 in Proceedings Malaysian Chemical Congress Congress 1992, Kuala Lumpur.

Weising K & B Fiala. 1992. Botanische Eindrücke vom Bako-Nationalpark, Sarawak. Der Palmengarten 3: 153-162

Fiala B, Grunsky H, Maschwitz U & Linsenmair KE. 1994. Diversity of ant-plant interactions: Protective efficacy in Macaranga species with different degrees of ant-association. Oecologia: 186-192.

Fiala B, Linsenmair KE & U Maschwitz. 1994. Diversität von Ameisen-Pflanzen-Interaktionen im südostasiatischen Regenwald. Andrias Sonderband, 13: 169-178.
Fiala B, Rabenstein R & U Maschwitz. 1994. Ant-attracting plant-structures: Food bodies of SE Asian Vitaceae. In: Les insectes sociaux. Proc. 12th IUSSI-Congress Paris, Lenoir, A, Arnold, G & M. Lepage (eds), p. 174

Federle W, Fiala B, Maschwitz U. & Azarae Hj. Idris. 1994. The first myrmecophytic 2-partner-system in the genus Macaranga: The association between Macaranga puncticulata and a Camponotus (Colobopsis) in Malaysia. In: Lenoir, A, Arnold, G & M. Lepage (eds), Les insectes sociaux, Proc. 52th IUSSI-Congress Paris, p. 175

Maschwitz U, Fiala B & KE Linsenmair. 1994. Clerodendrum fistulosum Beccari (Verbenacae), an unspecific myrmecophyte from Borneo with spontaneously opening domatia. Blumea (Leiden), 39: 143-150.

Maschwitz U, Fiala B, Saw LG, Norma Rashid Y. & A Hj. Idris. 1994. Ficus obscura Bl. var. borneensis (Miq. ) Corner, a new unspecific ant-plant from Malesia. Malayan Nature Journal 47: 409-416.

Ooi LE, Chuah CH, Yong HS & B Fiala. 1994. Fruitfly attractants from two plant species. Proceedings 4th Eurasia Conference on Chemical Sciences, 17-20 Dec, Kuala lumpur.

Fiala B & KE Linsenmair. 1995. Distribution and abundance of plants with extrafloral nectaries in the woody flora of a lowland primary forest in Malaysia. Biodiversity and Conservation 4, 165-182.

Fiala B & U Maschwitz. 1995. Mutualistic associations between ants and plants in SE Asian rainforests. Wallaceana 75: 1-5.

Maschwitz U & B Fiala. 1995. Investigations on ant-plant-associations in the South-East-Asian Genus Neonauclea Merr. (Rubiaceae). Acta Oecologia, 16 (1), 3-18.

Boer C, Brühl C, Fiala B, Heil M, Muhammad A, Pfeiffer M & KE Linsenmair (1996) Biodiversity research in SE Asia. Global Biodiversity Research in Europe, International Senckenberg-Conference Frankfurt a.M. 9.-13.12.1996.

Fiala B. 1996. Ants benefit pioneer trees: The genus Macaranga as an example of ant-plant associations in dipterocarp forest ecosystems. Pp. 102-123 in: Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards sustainable management. Ed. A. Schulte and D. Schöne. World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hongkong.

Fiala B, Krebs, SA, Barlow HS & U Maschwitz U. 1996. Interactions between Thunbergia grandifloraDolichoderus sp. and Xylopa latipes: a mutualistic association. Malayan Nature Journal 50, 1-14.

Fiala B, Jakob A, & U Maschwitz. 1996. Diversity, specificity and geographical distribution of ants inhabiting myrmecophytic Macaranga species in South-east Asia. Global Biodiversity Research in Europe, International Senckenberg-Conference Frankfurt a.M. 9.-13.12.1996, abstract volume, p. 19.

Fiala B, Maschwitz U & KE Linsenmair. 1996. Macaranga caladiifolia Beccari (Euphorbiaceae), a new type of ant-plant among SE-Asian myrmecophytic Macaranga species. Biotropica 28: 408-412.

Maschwitz U, Fiala B, Davies SJ, Linsenmair KE. 1996. Camponotus and Crematogaster as partners of one myrmecophyte: A new three-partner association in the genus Macaranga from Borneo (including description of Camponotus macarangae, new species by K. Dumpert). Ecotropica 2(1): 29-40

Federle W, Maschwitz U, Fiala B, Riederer M & B Hölldobler (1997) Slippery ant-plants and skillful climbers: Selection and protection of the specific partner ants by epicuticular wax blooms in Macaranga (Euphor-biaceae). Oecologia 112: 217-224.

Heil M, Fiala B, Linsenmair KE, Zotz G, Menke P, Maschwitz U. (1997) Food body production in Macaranga triloba (Euphorbiaceae): a plant investment in anti-herbivore defence via symbiotic ant partners. Journal of Ecology 85: 847-861.

Federle W, Maschwitz U & B Fiala (1998). The two -partner ant-plant system of Camponotus (Colobopsis) sp. 1 and Macaranga puncticulata (Formicidae: Formicinae; Euphorbicaceae): Myrmecophytic traits of the partner ant. Insectes Sociaux 45: 1-16.

Fiala B, Floren A, Heckroth HP, Heil M, Linsenmair KE (1998) Pflanzen als inselhafte Ressourcen und ihre Bedeutung für die Diversität tropischer Arthropoden. Bielefelder Ökologische Beiträge 12: 28. Hrg. H Dalitz, M Haverkamp, J Homeier & SW Breckle.

Heckroth HP, Fiala B, Gullan PJ, Maschwitz U, Azarae Hj. Idris (1998) The soft scale (Coccidae) associates of Malaysian ant-plants. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14: 427-443.

Heil M, Fiala B, Kaiser W, Linsenmair KE (1998). Chemical contents of Macaranga food bodies: Physiological adaptations to their role in ant attraction and nutrition. Functional Ecology 12: 117-122.

Matthes M, Moog J, Fiala B, Werner M, Nais J, Maschwitz U(1998) The rattan palm Korthalsia robusta Bl. and its ant and aphid partners: studies on a myrmecophytic association in Kinabalu Park, Sabah. Sabah Parks Nature Journal 1: 37-50.

Federle W, Fiala B, Maschwitz U (1998) Camponotus (Colobopsis) (Mayr 1861) and Macaranga: (Thouars 1806): A specific two partner ant-plant system from Malaysia. Tropical Zoology 11: 83-94.

Fiala B, Brühl C. (1998) Diversity and stratification of ants in Kinabalu Park. Tropical Ecosystem Research in Sabah,93-100. Eds. Maryati Mohamed, Jamili Nais & Henry Bernard, University Malaysia Sabah.

Rabenstein R, Fiala B, Maschwitz U (1998) Nichtmyrmekophytische Vitaceen und ihre Besucher: Parasitismus-Kommensalismus- Mutualismus? Mitteilungen der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg 190. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Congress of the German Society for Tropical Ecology, ed. H. Ellenberg, p. 144.

Fiala B, Jakob A, Maschwitz U, Linsenmair KE (1999) Diversity, evolutionary specialisation and geographic distribution of a mutualistic ant-plant complex: Macaranga and Crematogaster in South East Asia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66, 305-331

Heil M, Fiala B, Boller T, Linsenmair KE (1999) Reduced chitinase activities in ant plants of the genus Macaranga. Naturwissenschaften 86, 146-149

Heckroth, HP, Fiala B, Maschwitz U. (1999) Integration of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) in the South-East Asian ant-plant system Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae)-Crematogaster (Formicidae).Entomologica, Bari, 33, 287-295.

Merbach MA, Zizka G, Fiala B, Merbach D, Maschwitz U, Webber Booth (1999) Giant nectaries in the peristome thorns of the pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook F. (Nepenthaceae): Anatomy and functional aspects. Ecotropica 5,45-50.

Rabenstein R, Liefke C, Maschwitz U, Fiala B, Rosli bin Hashim (1999): Ants like it sweet - Plant based food resources of the ant Polyrhachis olybria. - Malaysian Naturalist 52(4), 5-9.

Feldhaar H, Fiala B, Rosli bin Hashim, Maschwitz U (2000) How to maintain an ant-plant symbiosis: Secondary polygyny in the Macaranga triloba – Crematogaster sp. association. Naturwissenschaften, 87, 408-411

Heil M, Fiala B, Baumann B, Linsenmair KE (2000) Complex patterns of extrafloral nectar secretion in Macaranga tanarius are caused by different biotic and abiotic factors. Functional Ecology 14, 749-757

Blattner FR, Weising K, Bänfer G, Maschwitz U, Fiala B (2001) Molecular analysis of phylogenetic relationships among myrmecophytic Macaranga species (Euphorbiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19 (3), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19(3): 331-344

Eck G, Fiala B, Linsenmair KE, Rosli b. Hashim, Proksch P (2001) Trade off between chemical and biotic anti-herbivore defense in the South-east-Asian plant genus Macaranga, Journal of Chemical Ecology 27 (10), 1979-1996

Federle W, Fiala B, Zizka G, Maschwitz U (2001) Prostomata in Macaranga ant-plants: incident daylight as orientation cue for hole-boring ants. Insectes Sociaux 48, 165-177

Heil M, Koch T, Hilpert A, Fiala B, Boland W, Linsenmair KE (2001) Extrafloral nectar production of the ant-associated plant, Macaranga tanarius, is an induced indirect defensive response elicited by jasmonic acid, PNAS 3, 98(3), 1083-1088

Heil M, Fiala B, Maschwitz U, Linsenmair KE (2001) On the benefits of indirect defence: short- and long-term studies in antiherbivore protection via mutualistic ants. Oecologia 126, 395-403

Heil M, Fiala B, Linsenmair KE (2001) nutrient availability, and indirect (biotic) defence in a Malaysian ant-plant. Oecologia 129, 404-408
Linsenmair KE, Heil M, Kaiser W, Fiala B, Koch T, Boland W (2001) Adaptations to biotic and abiotic stress: Macaranga-ant plants optimise investment in biotic defence. Journal Experimental Botany 52 (363), 2057-2065

Linsenmair KE, Davis AJ, Fiala B, Speight M (eds) (2001) Tropical Forest Canopies: Ecology and Management, Kluwer, Netherlands Merbach MA, Zizka G, Fiala B, Maschwitz U, WE Booth (2001) Patterns of nectar secretion in five Nepenthes species from Brunei Darussalam, Northwest Borneo, and implications for ant-plant relationships. Flora 196, 153-160

Merbach MA, Merbach, DJ, Maschwitz U, Booth, WE, Fiala B, Zizka G (2002) Mass march into the deadly trap: How the pitcher plant Nepenthes albomarginata lures its termite prey. Nature 415, 36-37

Moog U, Fiala B, Federle W, Maschwitz U (2002) Thrips pollination of the dioeceous ant-plant Macaranga hullettii (Euphorbiaceae) in Southeast Asia. American Journal of Botany 89 (1), 50-59

Heil M, Hilpert A, Fiala B, Kaiser W, Zotz G, Strohm E, Rosli b. Hashim , KE Linsenmair (2002) Nutrient allocation of Macaranga triloba ant plants to growth, photosynthesis , and indirect defense. Functional Ecology 16, 475-483

Fiala B & Saw, LG (2003) Ant fauna of the lower vegetation stratum in Pasoh Forest Reserve with special reference to the diversity of plants with extrafloral nectaries and associated ants. Pp. 437-458. In “ Pasoh:Ecology and Natural History of a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest’ Editors: T. Okuda, K. Niiyama and S. Thomas, Springer Verlag, Tokyo, Berlin, Heidelberg etc.

Feldhaar, H, Fiala B, Rosli b. Hashim, Maschwitz U (2003) Dynamics of the Crematogaster-Macaranga association: The ant partner makes the difference. Insectes Sociaux 50, 9-19

Feldhaar H, Fiala B, Gadau J, Maryati Mohamed, Maschwitz U (2003) Molecular phylogeny of Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the colonization of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) trees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27(3), 441-452

Moog J, Fiala B, Werner M, Weissflog A, Maschwitz U (2003) Ant-plant diversity in Peninsular Malaysia, with special reference to the Pasoh Forest Reserve. Pp. 459-494. In “ Pasoh: Ecology and Natural History of a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest. Editors: T. Okuda, K.Niiyama and S. Thomas. Springer Verlag, Tokyo, Berlin, Heidelberg etc.

Bänfer G, Fiala B, Weising K (2004) AFLP analysis of phylogenetic relationships among myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) and their allies. Plant Systematics and Evolution. DOI: 10.1007/s00606-004-0219-4

Feldhaar H, Fiala B, Gadau J (2004) Characterization of microsatellite markers for plant-ants of the genus Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema. Molecular Ecology Notes 4 (3), 409-411

Heckroth HP, Moog J, Janka HI, Fiala B, Chung AY, Maschwitz U (2004) Smilax borneensis, an unspecific climbing ant-plant from Borneo and myrmecophytic traits in other Asian Smilax species. Sandakania 14,33-50.

Heckroth HP, Fiala B, Malsch AKF, Rosli HB, Maschwitz U (2004) Limits of protection against non-specific insects( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) in myrmecophytic and non-myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). Entomologia Generalis 21(1), 1-13.

Maschwitz U, Fiala B, Dumpert K (2004) An unusual myrmecophytic Macaranga association, occurring in a disjunct area in the monsoon zone of Southeast Asia: Phenology and description of the ant species. Ecotropica 10(1), 33-49

Feldhaar H, Fiala B, Gadau J (2005) A shift in colony founding behaviour in an obligate plant-ant from single queens to foundress associations and polygynous colonies. Insectes Sociaux. 52, 22-230

Bänfer, G., Moog, U., Fiala, B., Mohamed, M., Weising, K., Blattner, F.R. (2006) A chloroplast genealogy of myrmecophytic Macaranga species (Euphorbiaceae) in Southeast Asia reveals hybridization, vicariance and long-distance dispersals. Mol. Ecol. 15:4409-4424

Jürgens A, Feldhaar H, Feldmeyer B, Fiala B (2006) Chemical composition of leaf volatiles in Macaranga species (Euphorbiaceae) and their potential role as olfactory cues in host-localisation oo foundress queens of specific ant partners. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 34, 97-113