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A tethered flying monarch butterfly orients in the flight simulator with respect to a green light spot. While flying, microelectrodes record the butterflies’ brain activity.

Sun Compass on Demand

A nocturnal dung beetle climbing atop its dung ball to survey the stars before starting to roll.

Bright Lights, Bad Orientation

A buff-tailed bumblebee and a 3D model of the bumblebee brain, based on micro-CT. The blue regions symbolise the primary olfactory centres. The yellow/orange regions process visual information from the compound eyes, the turquoise coloured visual information from the ocelli. Shown in red/orange are the mushroom bodies important for learning. The insects' inner compass, the central complex, is green.

An Atlas of the Bumblebee Brain

Measurements have shown how the hummingbird hawkmoth uses optic flow for flight control and orientation.

A Divided Visual Field