SMN is concentrated in the Cajal bodies (left, red) in the nucleus of human cells (blue). If phosphorylation of SMN is inhibited, the concentration ceases and Cajal bodies disappear.

Flash mob in the nucleus

During drought, the signalling molecule GABA is produced and inhibits the opening of leaf pores (left). If the enzyme GAD2, which converts glutamate to GABA, is genetically switched off, the pores remain open even during drought - the plants lose more water (centre). If the gene for GAD2 is reintroduced into the closing cells, the defect is reversed. The experiment shows that the sphincter cells autonomously perceive stress and react to it with GABA production.

Plants Remember Drought

Model of the SMN complex, stained yeast cells can be seen in the background.

First 3D Images of a Giant Molecule

Measurements have shown how the hummingbird hawkmoth uses optic flow for flight control and orientation.

A Divided Visual Field