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Flooding the intercellular spaces with salt causes the leaf to sink temporarily (1 -> 2). After disposal of the salt in the vacuole (3), the leaf resumes its initial position (1). The application of salt causes a decrease in the cytoplasmic calcium ion and proton concentration in the leaf, but an increase in calcium ions in the root.

Extreme Salt Stress Triggers Leaf Movement

Ants are usually found in large numbers. But how many of them are there in total on earth?

How many ants are there?

A Matabele ant treats the wound of a conspecific with an antimicrobial substance.

The medicine of ants

A bird found in cacao agroforests in Northern Peru, the groove billed ani.

Cacao: Multiple interactions in its cultivation