Department of Botany I - Plant-Physiology and Biophysics


Strauss J, Deng L, Gao S, Toseland A, Bachy C, Zhang C, Kirkham A, Hopes A, Utting R, Joest EF, Tagliabue A, Löw C, Worden AZ, Nagel G, Mock T. (2023) Plastid-localized xanthorhodopsin increases diatom biomass and ecosystem productivity in iron-limited surface oceans. Nat Microbiol. 8(11):2050-2066. doi: 10.1038/s41564-023-01498-5. Epub 2023 Oct 16. PMID: 37845316
Lin F, Tang R, Zhang C, Scholz N, Nagel G, Gao S. (2023) Combining different ion-selective channelrhodopsins to control water flux by light. Pflugers Arch. 475(12):1375-1385. doi: 10.1007/s00424-023-02853-5. Epub 2023 Sep 5. PMID: 37670155
Konrad KR, Gao S, Zurbriggen MD, Nagel G. (2023) Optogenetic Methods in Plant Biology.
Annu Rev Plant Biol. 74:313-339. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-071122-094840. PMID: 37216203 Review.
Höler S, Degreif D, Stix F, Yang S, Gao S, Nagel G, Moroni A, Thiel G, Bertl A, Rauh O. (2023) Tailoring baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for functional testing of channelrhodopsin. PLoS One. 18(4):e0280711. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0280711. eCollection 2023. PMID: 37053213

Zhang Y, Benz P, Stehle D, Yang S, Kurz H, Feil S, Nagel G, Feil R, Gao S, Bender M. (2022) Optogenetic manipulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate to probe phosphodiesterase activities in megakaryocytes. Open Biol. 12(8):220058. doi: 10.1098/rsob.220058.
Henß T, Nagpal J, Gao S, Scheib U, Pieragnolo A, Hirschhäuser A, Schneider-Warme F, Hegemann P, Nagel G, Gottschalk A. (2022) Optogenetic tools for manipulation of cyclic nucleotides functionally coupled to cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Br J Pharmacol. 179(11):2519-2537. doi: 10.1111/bph.15445. Epub 2021 May 6.
Chen F, Duan X, Yu Y, Yang S, Chen Y, Gee CE, Nagel G, Zhang K, Gao S, Shen Y. (2022) Visual function restoration with a highly sensitive and fast Channelrhodopsin in blind mice. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 7(1):104. doi: 10.1038/s41392-022-00935-x.
Wichers JS, Mesén-Ramírez P, Fuchs G, Yu-Strzelczyk J, Stäcker J, von Thien H, Alder A, Henshall I, Liffner B, Nagel G, Löw C, Wilson D, Spielmann T, Gao S, Gilberger TW, Bachmann A, Strauss J. (2022) PMRT1, a Plasmodium-Specific Parasite Plasma Membrane Transporter, Is Essential for Asexual and Sexual Blood Stage Development. mBio. 13(2):e0062322. doi: 10.1128/mbio.00623-22.
Tian Y, Gao S, Nagel G. (2022) In Vivo and In Vitro Characterization of Cyclase and Phosphodiesterase Rhodopsins. Methods Mol Biol. 2501:325-338. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2329-9_16. PMID: 35857236
Tian Y, Yang S, Nagel G, Gao S. (2022) Characterization and Modification of Light-Sensitive Phosphodiesterases from Choanoflagellates. Biomolecules. 12(1):88. doi: 10.3390/biom12010088.

Huang S, Ding M, Roelfsema MRG, Dreyer I, Scherzer S, Al-Rasheid KAS, Gao S, Nagel G, Hedrich R, Konrad KR. (2021) Optogenetic control of the guard cell membrane potential and stomatal movement by the light-gated anion channel GtACR1. Sci Adv. 7(28):eabg4619. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abg4619.
Henß T, Nagpal J, Gao S, Scheib U, Pieragnolo A, Hirschhäuser A, Schneider-Warme F, Hegemann P, Nagel G, Gottschalk A. (2021) Optogenetic tools for manipulation of cyclic nucleotides functionally coupled to cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2021 Mar 18. doi: 10.1111/bph.15445. Online ahead of print.
Panzer S, Zhang C, Konte T, Bräuer C, Diemar A, Yogendran P, Yu-Strzelczyk J, Nagel G, Gao S, Terpitz U. (2021) Modified Rhodopsins From Aureobasidium pullulans Excel With Very High Proton-Transport Rates.
Front Mol Biosci. 8:750528. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2021.750528. eCollection 2021.
Yang S, Constantin OM, Sachidanandan D, Hofmann H, Kunz TC, Kozjak-Pavlovic V, Oertner TG, Nagel G, Kittel RJ, Gee CE, Gao S. (2021) PACmn for improved optogenetic control of intracellular cAMP. BMC Biol. 19(1):227. doi: 10.1186/s12915-021-01151-9.
Zhou Y, Ding M, Duan X, Konrad KR, Nagel G, Gao S. (2021) Extending the Anion Channelrhodopsin-Based Toolbox for Plant Optogenetics. Membranes (Basel). 11(4):287. doi: 10.3390/membranes11040287.
Tang R, Yang S, Nagel G, Gao S. (2021) mem-iLID, a fast and economic protein purification method.
Biosci Rep. 41(7):BSR20210800. doi: 10.1042/BSR20210800.
Tian Y, Nagel G, Gao S. (2021) An engineered membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase with light-switchable activity
BMC Biol. 19(1):54. doi: 10.1186/s12915-021-00978-6
Zhou Y, Ding M, Gao S, Yu-Strzelczyk J, Krischke M, Duan X, Leide J, Riederer M, Mueller MJ, Hedrich R, Konrad KR, Nagel G. (2021) Optogenetic control of plant growth by a microbial rhodopsin. Nature Plants volume 7, pages144–151   doi: 10.1038/s41477-021-00853-w. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Florian Walther, Dominic Feind, Christian vom Dahl, Christoph Emanuel Müller, Taulant Kukaj, Christian Sattler, Georg Nagel, Shiqiang Gao, and Thomas Zimmer (2020) Action potentials in Xenopus oocytes triggered by blue light. J. Gen. Physiol. Vol. 152 No. 5 e201912489,

Reyer A, Häßler M, Scherzer S, Huang S, Pedersen JT, Al-Rascheid KAS, Bamberg E, Palmgren M, Dreyer I, Nagel G, Hedrich R, Becker D. (2020) Channelrhodopsin-mediated optogenetics highlights a central role of depolarization-dependent plant proton pumps. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.    doi: 10.1073/pnas.2005626117. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32788371

Zhang C, Yang S, Flossmann T, Gao S, Witte OW, Nagel G, Holthoff K, Kirmse K (2019) Optimized photo-stimulation of halorhodopsin for long-term neuronal inhibition. BMC Biol. 17:95,

Xiaodong Duan, Georg Nagel, Shiqiang Gao (2019) Mutated Channelrhodopsins with Increased Sodium and Calcium Permeability. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 664; doi:10.3390/app9040664

Tian Y, Gao S, von der Heyde EL, Hallmann A, Nagel G (2018). Two-component cyclase opsins of green algae are ATP-dependent and light-inhibited guanylyl cyclases. BMC Biol. 2018 Dec 6;16(1):144. doi: 10.1186/s12915-018-0613-5.
Beck Sebastian, Jing Yu-Strzelczyk, Dennis Pauls, Oana M. Constantin, Christine E. Gee, Nadine Ehmann, Robert J. Kittel, Georg Nagel, Shiqiang Gao Synthetic Light-Activated Ion Channels for Optogenetic Activation and Inhibition (2018) Front Neurosci. 12: 643. Published online 2018 Oct 2. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00643
PMCID:    PMC6176052
Scheib U, Broser M, Constantin O M, Yang S, Gao S, Mukherjee S, Stehfest K, Nagel G, Gee C E, Hegemann P (2018) Rhodopsin-cyclases for photocontrol of cGMP/cAMP and 2.3 Å structure of the adenylyl cyclase domain. Nature Communications 9(1):2046. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04428-w.
Tian Y, Gao S, Yang S, Nagel G. (2018) A novel rhodopsin phosphodiesterase from Salpingoeca rosetta shows light-enhanced substrate affinity. Biochem J. 475(6):1121-1128. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20180010.
Bergs A, Schultheis C, Fischer E, Tsunoda SP, Erbguth K, Husson SJ, Govorunova E, Spudich JL, Nagel G, Gottschalk A, Liewald JF. (2018) Rhodopsin optogenetic toolbox v2.0 for light-sensitive excitation and inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS One. 13(2):e0191802.

Scholz N, Guan C, Nieberler M, Grotemeyer A, Maiellaro I, Gao S, Beck S, Pawlak M, Sauer M, Asan E, Rothemund S, Winkler J, Prömel S, Nagel G, Langenhan T, Kittel RJ. (2017) Mechano-dependent signaling by Latrophilin/CIRL quenches cAMP in proprioceptive neurons. Elife. 2017 Aug 8;6. pii: e28360. doi: 10.7554/eLife.28360.

Gao S, Nagpal J, Schneider MW, Kozjak-Pavlovic V, Nagel G, Gottschalk A. (2015) Optogenetic manipulation of cGMP in cells and animals by the tightly light-regulated guanylyl-cyclase opsin CyclOp. Nat Commun. 6:8046. doi: 10.1038/ncomms9046 (2015)

Adamantidis A, Arber S, Bains JS, Bamberg E, Bonci A, Buzsáki G, Cardin JA, Costa RM, Dan Y, Goda Y, Graybiel AM, Häusser M, Hegemann P, Huguenard JR, Insel TR, Janak PH, Johnston D, Josselyn SA, Koch C, Kreitzer AC, Lüscher C, Malenka RC, Miesenböck G, Nagel G, Roska B, Schnitzer MJ, Shenoy KV, Soltesz I, Sternson SM, Tsien RW, Tsien RY, Turrigiano GG, Tye KM, Wilson RI. (2015). Optogenetics: 10 years after ChR2 in neurons--views from the community. Nat Neurosci 18:1202-12.

Dawydow A., Gueta R., Ljaschenko D., Ullrich S., Hermann M., Fiala A., Langenhan T., Nagel G., Kittel R.J., (2014) Channelrhodopsin-2-XXL, a powerful optogenetic tool for low-light applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111(38):13972-7

Raffelberg S, Wang L, Gao S, Losi A, Gärtner W, Nagel G. (2013) A LOV-domain-mediated blue-light-activated adenylate (adenylyl) cyclase from the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes PCC 7420. Biochem J; 455(3):359-65

Hegemann P, Nagel G. (2013) From channelrhodopsins to optogenetics.EMBO Mol Med. 5(2):173-6. doi: 10.1002/emmm.201202387. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Ullrich S, Gueta R, Nagel G. (2013) Degradation of channelopsin-2 in the absence of retinal and degradation resistance in certain mutants. Biol Chem. 2013 Feb;394(2):271-80.

Schultheis C, Liewald JF, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Gottschalk A. (2011) Optogenetic long-term manipulation of behavior and animal development. PLoS. 6(4):18766.

Yonehara K, Balint K, Noda M, Nagel G, Bamberg E, Roska B. (2011) Spatially asymmetric reorganization of inhibition establishes a motion-sensitive circuit. Nature. 469(7330):407-10.

Weissenberger S, Schultheis C, Liewald JF, Erbguth K, Nagel G, Gottschalk A. (2011) PACα--an optogenetic tool for in vivo manipulation of cellular cAMP levels, neurotransmitter release, and behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurochem. 116(4):616-25.

Stierl M, Stumpf P, Udwari D, Gueta R, Hagedorn R, Losi A, Gärtner W, Petereit L, Efetova M, Schwarzel M, Oertner TG, Nagel G, Hegemann P. (2011) Light modulation of cellular cAMP by a small bacterial photoactivated adenylyl cyclase, bPAC, of the soil bacterium Beggiatoa. J Biol Chem. 286(2):1181-8.

Bamann C, Nagel G, Bamberg E. (2010) Microbial rhodopsins in the spotlight. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 20(5):610-6.

Bamann C, Gueta R, Kleinlogel S, Nagel G, Bamberg E. (2010) Structural guidance of the photocycle of channelrhodopsin-2 by an interhelical hydrogen bond. Biochemistry. 49(2):267-78.

Looser J, Schröder-Lang S, Hegemann P, Nagel G. (2009) Mechanistic insights in light-induced cAMP production by photoactivated adenylyl cyclase alpha (PACalpha). Biol Chem. 390(11):1105-11.

Radu I, Bamann C, Nack M, Nagel G, Bamberg E, Heberle J. (2009) Conformational Changes of Channelrhodopsin-2. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 7313-7319.

Caldwell JH, Herin GA, Nagel G, Bamberg E, Scheschonka A, Betz H. (2008) Increases in intracellular calcium triggered by channelrhodopsin-2 potentiate the response of metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7. J Biol Chem. 283, 24300-24307.

C. Bamann, T. Kirsch, G. Nagel, and E. Bamberg (2008) Spectral charcteristics of the photocycle of channelrhodopsin-2 and its implication for channel function. J Mol Biol. 375(3):686-694.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J.F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P.G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth (2007) Multimodal fast optical interrogation of neural circuits. Nature 446:633-639.

Schröder-Lang, S., M. Schwärzel, R. Seifert, T. Strünker, S. Kateriya, J. Looser, M. Watanabe, U. B. Kaupp, P. Hegemann, G. Nagel (2007) Fast manipulation of cellular cAMP level by light in vivo. Nat Methods 4(1):39-42.

Schroll C, Riemensperger T, Bucher D, Ehmer J, Voller T, Erbguth K, Gerber B, Hendel T, Nagel G, Buchner E, Fiala A. (2006) Light-induced activation of distinct modulatory neurons triggers appetitive or aversive learning in Drosophila larvae. Curr Biol. 16(17):1741-7.

Zimmermann D, Terpitz U, Zhou A, Reuss R, Müller K, Sukhorukov VL, Gessner P, Nagel G, Zimmermann U, Bamberg E. (2006) Biophysical characterisation of electrofused giant HEK293-cells as a novel electrophysiological expression system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 348(2):673-81.

Nagel, G., P. Barbry, H. Chabot, E. Brochiero, K. Hartung and R. Grygorczyk. (2005) CFTR fails to inhibit the epithelial sodium channel ENaC expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Physiol (Lond) 564: 671-682.

Nagel, G., T. Szellas, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Hegemann, E. Bamberg. Channelrhodopsins: directly light-gated cation channels. Biochemical Society Transactions (2005) 33(4): 863-866.

Boyden, E.S., F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, K. Deisseroth (2005) Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity. Nature Neuroscience 8(9):1263-8.

Nagel, G., M. Brauner, J.F. Liewald, N. Adeishvili, E. Bamberg, A. Gottschalk (2005) Light-activation of Channelrhodopsin-2 in excitable cells of Caenorhabditis elegans triggers rapid behavioral responses. Current Biology 15(24):2279-84.

Bettina Himmel & Georg Nagel (2004) Protein kinase-independent activation of CFTR by phosphatidylinositol phosphates. EMBO reports 5, 85–90.

Nagel, G. (2004) CFTR, investigated with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique: the importance of knowing the series resistance. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 3: 109– 111.

Kateriya S, Nagel G, Bamberg E, Hegemann P. (2004) "Vision" in single-celled algae. News Physiol Sci. 19:133-137.

Nagel, G, T. Szellas, W. Huhn, S. Kateriya, N. Adeishvili, P. Berthold, D. Ollig, P. Hegemann, E. Bamberg. (2003) Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly Light-gated Cation-selective Membrane Channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 100:13940-13945.

Szellas, T. & G. Nagel (2003) Apparent affinity of CFTR for ATP is increased by continuous kinase activity.  FEBS Letters 535: 141-146. 

Hippler-Mreyen, Silke, Johann P. Klare, Ansgar A. Wegener, Ralf Seidel, Christian Herrmann, Georg Schmies, Georg Nagel, Ernst Bamberg, and M. Engelhard (2003) Probing the Sensory Rhodopsin II Binding Domain of its Cognate Transducer by Calorimetry and Electrophysiology. J. Mol. Biol. 330, 1203–1213.

Volk, C., V. Gorboulev, T. Budiman, G. Nagel, H. Koepsell. (2003) Different Affinities of Inhibitors to the Outwardly and Inwardly Directed Substrate Binding Site of Organic Cation Transporter 2. Molecular Pharmacology 64:1037-1047.

Nagel G., D. Ollig, M. Fuhrmann, S. Kateriya, A.M. Musti, E. Bamberg, P. Hegemann (2002). Channelrhodopsin-1: a light-gated proton channel in green algae. Science 296: 2395-2398.

Powe A, Zhou Z, Hwang T-C, Nagel G (2002). Quantitative Analysis of ATP-Dependent Gating of CFTR. Methods in Molecular Medicine 70:67-98.

Haase A, Kappl M, Nagel G, Wood PG, Hartung K. (2002) The Ca/Ca Exchange Mode of the Na/Ca Exchanger Investigated by Photolytic Ca2+ Concentration Jumps.  Ann N Y Acad Sci. 976:113-116.